Basketball is a team sport. Two teams of five players each try to score by shooting a ball through a hoop elevated 10 feet above the ground. The game is played on a rectangular floor called the court, and there is a hoop at each end. The court is divided into two main sections by the mid-court line. If the offensive team puts the ball into play behind the mid-court line, it has ten seconds to get the ball over the mid-court line. If it doesn’t, then the defense gets the ball. Once the offensive team gets the ball over the mid-court line, it can no longer have possession of the ball in the area in back of the line. If it does, the defense is awarded the ball.
The only major sport strictly of U.S. origin, basketball was invented by James Naismith (1861–1939) on or about December 1, 1891, at the International Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) Training School (now Springfield College), where Naismith was an instructor in physical education.
Basketball Court and equipment.
-> Playing Court Dimensions.
-> Sidelines, End Lines.
The playing court shall be marked with sidelines, end lines and other lines. There shall be at least 3 feet (and preferably 10 feet) of unobstructed space outside boundaries. The sidelines and end lines shall be a minimum of 2 inches in width. If it is desirable to use contrasting colored-floor areas instead of the lines.
-> Center Restraining Circle, Division.
A restraining circle shall be drawn at the center of the court with a radius of 6 feet measured to the outside edge. The edge of the circle shall be designated with a minimum of a 1/4-inch-wide single line but no wider than 2 inches. Spaces for nonjumpers around the center circle are 36 inches deep. A division line 2 inches wide, shall divide the court into two equal parts. If the court is less than 74 feet long, it should be divided by two lines, each parallel to and 40 feet from the farther end line.
-> Three-point line.
A three-point field-goal line, 2 inches wide in the form of a semicircle, shall be drawn at each end of the court. The semicircle has a radius of 19 feet 9 inches from a point in the middle of the free-throw lane directly below the center of the basket to the outside edge of the line. The semicircle shall be extended with a 2-inch wide line perpendicular to the end line, the length of which shall be 63 inches from the inside edge of the end line.
-> Free-Throw Lane.
A free-throw lane, 12 feet wide measured to the outside of each lane boundary, and the semicircle with the free-throw line as a diameter, shall be marked at each end of the court with dimensions and markings. All lines designating the free-throw lane, but not lane-space marks and neutral-zone marks, are part of the lane. A free-throw line, 2 inches wide, shall be drawn across both circles, which have an outside radius 6 feet. It shall be parallel to the end line and shall have its farthest edge 15 feet from the plane of the face of the backboard.
(1) a rectangle 6 feet horizontally and 4 feet vertically; or
(2) a rectangle 6 feet horizontally and 3.5 feet vertically; or
(3) a fan-shaped backboard, 54-inches wide.
A rectangle shall be centered behind the ring and marked by a 2-inch white line. The rectangle shall have outside dimensions of 24 inches horizontally and 18 inches vertically. For a rectangular backboard, the top edge of the backboard shall be level with the ring.
-> Backboard Position.
-> Backboard Padding, Support Systems.
-> Basket Size, Material.
a. Its solid color shall be the approved orange shade or natural color.
b. It shall be spherical.
c. It shall have a deeply-pebbled cover with horizontally shaped panels bonded tightly to the rubber carcass.
d. The circumference shall be:
1. Within a minimum of 29.5 inches to a max of 30 inches for high school boys competition.
2. Within a minimum of 28.5 inches to a maximum of 29 inches for high school girls competition.
1. Within a minimum of 20 ounces to a maximum of 22 ounces for high school boys competition.
2. Within a minimum of 18 ounces to a maximum of 20 ounces for high school girls competition.
f. The black rubber rib separating the panels shall not exceed 1/4 inch in width.
g. The ball shall include the NFHS Authenticating Mark. The mark can be displayed in either format.
-> Team Bench Locations, Coaching Box, Time-out Area.
-> Clock and Scoreboard.
Rules of Basketball.
- The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
- The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands (never with the fist). Ball can still be batted or tipped in any direction with one or both hands but never with a closed fist. Ball also cannot be kicked.
- A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at a good speed if he tries to stop.
- The ball must be held in or between the hands; the arms or body must not be used for holding it. Players still cannot hold the ball against their body when moving. Results in a traveling violation.
- No shouldering, holding, pushing, tripping, or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed; the first infringement of this rule by any player shall count as a foul, the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made, or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game, no substitute allowed.
- A foul is striking at the ball with the fist, violation of Rules 3, 4, and such as described in Rule 5.
- If either side makes three consecutive fouls, it shall count a goal for the opponents consecutive means without the opponents in the mean time making a foul.
- A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal.
- When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field of play by the person first touching it. In case of a dispute, the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds; if he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on that side.
- The umpire shall be judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men according to Rule 5.
- The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made, and keep account of the goals with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.
- The time shall be two 15-minute halves, with five minutes’ rest between. (Game formats including length and the number of periods played along with halftime periods vary according to level.)
- The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner. In case of a draw, the game may, by agreement of the captains, be continued until another goal is made.
Principles of play.
To ensure that players would be capable of executing this freelancing style, the offense was created with fundamentals and sound principles in mind. The offense seeks to follow these six principles of sound offense:
The offense seeks to compromise the defense by penetrating the frontline defenders. This is best accomplished through the fast break.
Proper spacing ensures that any attempt to help, trap, and recover requires defenders to travel 15 to 20 feet from player to player. When the defense commits, an offensive player should always be open.
3. Ball and player movement with a purpose.
Players must move and move the ball with a purpose. The offense should keep the defense occupied on and off the ball. Players are indoctrinated with the mantra “there are five men and one ball, so each player will only have the ball 20 percent or less of the time the team is in possession of the ball.”
4. The ball handler must be able to pass to any of his four teammates at any given time.
5. Offensive rebounding and defensive balance.
On all shots taken the offense provides strong rebounding positioning and defensive balance to get back and prevent the opposition’s transition opportunities.
6. Versatile positioning.
Every player should be able to fill any spot on the floor regardless of their role. All positions are interchangable.
Basketball grew steadily but slowly in popularity and importance in the United States and internationally in the first three decades after World War II. Interest in the game deepened as a result of television exposure, but with the advent of cable television, especially during the 1980s, the game’s popularity exploded at all levels. Given a timely mix of spectacular players—such as Earvin (“Magic”) Johnson, Julius Erving (“Dr. J”), Larry Bird, and Michael Jordan—and the greatly increased exposure, basketball moved quickly to the forefront of the American sporting scene, alongside such traditional leaders as baseball and football. Four areas of the game developed during this period: U.S. high school and college basketball, professional basketball, women’s basketball, and international basketball.
To be a great teacher of the game you must study the game; know your craft & be proud of your knowledge; but never satisfied with your knowledge.-Ashwani.